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The growing demands of the work, the vast field to be covered and the delicacy and equipment needed in such work call for far greater resources. It must be remembered, however, that this situation is, to an extent, abnormal; that neither in the undeveloped races nor in the fully developed Race, when it comes, will earning a living as such, occupy the large space that it does today in human endeavor.
We need, for workers, laboratory and publications, a fund of ,000 a year, if this work is going adequately to fulfill its promise. A semi-centenary discourse and history of the first African Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, May, 1857, from its organization, including a notice of its first pastor, John Gloucester, also appendix containing sketches of all the colored churches in Philadelphia. Among the semi-civilized races the work of getting the material things necessary for life is looked upon as incidental to a great many other larger and, in their opinion, better things, such as hunting, resting, eating and perhaps carousing.
And so completely do these cultural aspects of their group efforts overshadow the economic efforts that at Page 11 first a student is tempted to think that there has been no inner economic co-operation, or at least that it has only come to the fore in the last two or three decades. While to be sure the religious motive was uppermost during the time of slavery, for instance, so far as group action among the Negroes were concerned, even then it had an economic tinge, and more so since slavery, has Negro religion had its economic side; so, too, the political striving after the war was a matter even more largely of economic welfare than it was of political preferment so far as the great mass of the race was concerned.
He is in the period of special individual development, and while the group development is going on rapidly, yet it is the individual as yet who stands forth.
Numbers 1-72, with minutes of the meetings and of the board of directors. We must not expect, for instance, to find a separately developed economic life among the Negroes except as they became under compulsion a part of the economic life of the nation before emancipation; and except as they have become since the emancipation, a part of the great working force.
So far as their own inner economic efforts are concerned we must expect in looking over their history to find great strivings in religious development, in political life and in efforts at education.
We have, therefore, first to ask ourselves in this study, How far are there traces in Africa of economic life and economic co-operation among Negroes?
Ratzel thoughtfully says: "Even in earlier days a deeper thinker might not have agreed with our great, but in this respect short-sighted historical philosophers, who held that Africa was only in the ante chamber of universal history.